How do we share rubrics?

Rubrics are now a common sight in classrooms; most teachers at this point use rubrics for at least some of their assessments. When they are used well, they can help students focus on the key parts of any assignment, and help them understand what it means to “meet” expectations.

Often, teachers create their rubrics in isolation, or do their own search for rubrics on the Internet. As a result, the language in a rubric can mean something different from one teacher to another within the same school — or even from one assignment to the next within the same class. This means that the feedback from one class might not mean the same thing as feedback in the next room over.

One way to handle this is for teachers to work together. But, it’s worth asking, “How do teachers share rubrics?” We’re not talking about just emailing a rubric from one person to another; we’re talking about sharing rubrics so that multiple teachers can use them.

The answer is to create schoolwide rubrics. There are a couple ways to do this:

  1. You can look for common tasks and create rubrics that can be used any time that task comes up. For example, a school can create a “response to literature” rubric for a certain grade level. In one district, the 4th and 5th grade teachers agreed to a common rubric for these writing assignments; the rubric could be applied whether the student was reading The Phantom Toolbooth or Little House on the Prairie  or A Wrinkle in Time.
  2. You can create common rows that can be used by teachers in different rubrics. For example, you can create a common rubric  row for “conventions,” dealing with spelling and grammar errors; teachers might agree to use this row for their writing assignments, even if the other rows in the rubric vary from teacher to teacher.

Richer Picture can help you with common rubrics; once a rubric (or a row) is entered into the system (and marked as “shared”), it can be used by any other teacher. Ultimately, this can help to provide some consistent feedback from teacher to teacher and from assignment to assignment.

What does “personalization” mean?

“Personalization” is a hot topic; every school, state and district seems to be promoting its efforts to personalize education. Still, it’s not clear that everyone is approaching this in the same way. It’s worth asking: what does ‘personalization’ mean in our school or district?

The State of Rhode Island’s Office of Innovation has looked at how 10 different organizations, from the US Department of Education to the Gates Foundation, has defined personalization, and found that certain “key phrases” appear throughout the defintiions, including:

  • competency-based progression
  • meets individual student needs
  • standards-aligned
  • student interests
  • student ownership
  • socially embedded
  • formative assessments
  • flexible learning environments

Each school needs to come to a decision about what aspects of personalization they have in mind.

Just as importantly, schools need to think about whether their initiatives are really meeting their definitions of personalization. Many Learning Management Systems claim that they can help you personalize — but often the only part of the definition they mean is that students can go at their own pace. In these environments, students use the same curriculum in the same order in the same way . Students don’t have much choice in how they interact with the material – the only thing they can control is how fast or how slow they move through the lessons.  The concepts of “student ownership” or “student interests” are low on the priority list.

Teachers are the critical factor in creating a personalized environment in schools – because they are the ones who get to know the students well. The concept of “meeting individual needs” is very different from a human perspective than from a computer’s.  (Allison Zmuda and Bena Kallick talk about the importance of other components in personalization, including student voice, co-creation, social sconstruction and self-discovery in their recent book Students at the Center.) The teachers who know their students well are the ones who can help a student see a problem from a different angle, or make a different analogy, or can connect today’s issue with something that student has accomplished before. And that’s just how teachers help students interact with the material — teachers are even more critical in understanding student motivations, things going on outside of the classroom, and in being a part of the school community. (Consider the heroic efforts teachers in the Florida, Texas, and Puerto Rico are making right now as their communities are rebuilding from the recent hurricanes.)

Technology has a place to help with personalization – but ultimately, personalization starts with teachers who are committed to understanding their students, and schools committed (as Debbie Meier put it), to ensuring that no child is anonymous.

Mini-exhibitions – a first step on the journey

When you’re planning backwards, you start with a vision of what you want students to know and be able to do. Teachers and students should have a common view of where you’d like to be at the end.

Now that we have a destination in mind, we have to think about the journey. And as the old saying goes, a journey of a thousand miles starts with a single step.

The early weeks of a curriculum usually start with the preliminaries; reviews of what happened in past years, and laying out the fundamentals of the current course. The theory is that focusing on the fundamentals will establish the building blocks for the rest of the year.

What can be just as helpful in these early weeks is to think about the question from last time — what should a student be able to do in May or June that the student can’t do in August or Septemberi? —  and to start to envision what parts the students can do now.

If you want students to be able to have an exhibition, or a performance at the end, what about asking students to do a version of that exhibition now? Can students create a mini-version of their final exhibition in these early weeks of the year?

Many courses build towards independent projects at the end of the term. In many cases, students can have difficulty with the “independent” part — coming up with their own experiment or idea to pursue. At this stage, it can be helpful to ask students to come up with a small-scale version of the final project. The students may not have yet mastered the material that you expect them to demosntrate at the end – but they can start to get a feel for the type of brainstorming and idea generation that will be needed then.

A mini-version of the exhibition has many of the same trappings as the final exhibition. If you want students to be able to defend a point of view at the end, ask them to pair off and have a mini-debate now. If you want students to be able to transfer their math skills to other settings, ask them to start looking for situations where those skills will be useful.

Sports teams typically have pre-season scrimmages; actors will have “workshop” performances before going to fully-staged productions. The rules may not be fully enforced – actors in the workshop may still be reading from a script, but there should be enough engagement to start to feel like the real thing. Both the performers and the coaches / directors can see things in a walk-through that can be developed over time. An “early-season” exhibition can help your students and you better understand your vision of where you want to be at the end.

Starting at the End

It’s the beginning of the school year – and so it’s the best time to think about the end.

As you get to know the new faces in your classrooms, consider this essential question – what should a student be able to do in May or June that the student can’t do in August or September?

what do you want them to be able to do by the time the course is over? The idea of “planning backwards” has been around for quite a while and can be stated simply – we figure out where we want to be at the end, and then design the classroom experience to work towards that end.

Often, curricular goals are still listed as a set of topics to cover. Instead, by thinking about what a student should be able to do by the time the course is over, you can recast the course as a journey towards some ending achievement. The portfolio can represent the steps that students are taking towards that end.

For courses that already focus on performances, such as music or programming or physical education, it’s easy to envision an endpoint: students will perform in the concert or complete the code for the robot or improve their exercise routine. In other courses where content coverage has long ruled, the performances can still be found: maybe you can picture your students having a conversation in Spanish, making connections among historical eras, or completing an investigation.

Before we get too caught up in quarterly and yearly grade averages, it can help your students if you can share that vision of what you believe they can do. This helps students to think about the course as more than a set of grades.

In this age of personalization, it’s important to include your student’s voices in that planning. As you describe your vision of what you believe they can do, the students can also start to picture themselves doing it as well. Undoubtedly, some students will start to generate their own ideas, and with guidance, as you get to know your students, you can help them associate their own goals with this larger exhibition.

So as you start your work on digital badges and portfolios for the year, look to where you want to be at the end – and share what you’re thinking with your class.

 

Portfolios and Badges – A Guide Throughout the Year

Happy new school year! We’ll be adding notes to this blog throughout this year, highlighting what schools do as they work on their digital portfolios and badges.

We’ll be looking at issues of personalization, assessment, and curriculum. What we know is that every school is different – so we want to focus on the essential questions that you can think about and discuss with your colleagues.

If you have a story or a suggestion, please reach out!

A Guide for Transformation — “Bold Moves” by Heidi Hayes Jacobs and Marie Alcock

There are lots of books on education out there. The good ones are helpful and tell you some ideas. The great ones give you some ideas – and help you generate even more.

Heidi and Marie’s new book — Bold Moves for Schools: How We Create Remarkable Learning Environments (available from ASCD) — talks about curriculum and assessment and pedagogy and leadership. But more importantly, it talks about all of these things as interrelated. All too often, schools and districts put together initiatives that focus on one area of change. That’s understandable; we don’t want people to feel overwhelmed. The problem is that changes in one part of the system inevitably rub against other elements. When adding advisories, or a different schedule, or introducing a new technology, there are inevitably side effects. The reason many initiatives disappear is because the school hasn’t connected those initiatives to a larger vision of what we want school to look like.

One particularly nice description in Heidi and Marie’s book is in thinking about a school’s current practices. Are they contemporary? Or classical? Or antiquated? This framework provides a new, and useful, way of distinguishing among the activities at the school.

I’m pleased that they discuss our work on digital portfolios in the chapter on “Contemporary Assessment Systems.” Richer Picture, when used well, can support innovative approaches to assessment – and because things are interrelated, will naturallly support your innovations in curriculum, personalization and school transformation.

 

bold_moves

A Framework for Personalization – “Students at the Center” by Bena Kallick and Allison Zmuda

Students At The CenterPersonalization is a trending word in education — but it’s clear that the word means very different things to different folks.

In their terrific new book, “Students At The Center: Personalized Learning with Habits of Mind,” Bena Kallick and Allison Zmuda outline the most important attributes of personalization. As they talk about these attributes (voice, co-creation, social construction and self-discovery), what’s clear is that true personalization requires increased levels of student engagement and teacher feedback.

All too often, educational technology products claim to be personalized – but all they really mean is that a student can go through a pre-ordered sequence of lessons at their own pace.

Bena and Allison talk specifically about portfolios and exhibitions, and they note it isn’t enough for students to collect work or to “engage in superficial reflection.” Rather, portfolios can be powerful tools for personalization when students “play a much more prominent role in assessing their own work,” when they use the portfolio to set goals and “decide on next steps” and can “learn to describe themselves … in richer ways than ‘good’ or ‘bad’ at something.”

If you’re looking to take steps to become more personalized, Bena and Allison provide a terrific framework. It also builds on earlier work on personalization like Joe DiMartino and Denise Wolk’s “The Personalized High School” and Allison’s own  Learning Personalized  – in both book and blog form.

Computer Science Standards

Increasingly, many states are encouraging the integration of computer science across all the grade levels. One of the best guidelines for organizing this work is from the Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA). CSTA’s recently revised K-12 computer science standards introduce the fundamental concepts of computer science to all students, present secondary-level computer science as part of STEM credits, and increase the availability of challenging computer science for all students, especially those who are members of groups underrepresented in technology-driven fields of study and work.

The CSTA computer science standards are organized into five strands:

  • Computational Thinking
  • Collaboration
  • Computing Practice and Programming
  • Computer and Communications Devices
  • Community, Global, and Ethical Impacts

These revised standards come at a time when many school districts are in the process of computer science implementation. According to Code.org’s “K-12 Computer Science Policy and Implementation in States,”

Tens of thousands of teachers are going through professional development to bring computer science  into their schools. Hundreds of school districts have embraced computer science in their curriculum. New York City and Chicago Public Schools — two of the largest districts in the country — have announced that computer science will be in all schools, and in Chicago, it is a required graduation credit. And in the past three years more than 30 states have responded to this growing interest by passing policies to boost computer science.

Computers & Communication Devices Digital Badge Icon

Computers & Communication Devices Digital Badge Icon

As your school moves toward computer science implementation, RicherPicture can help. Within RicherPicture, teachers can link assignments to the CSTA standards and create digital badges that define what students need to be able to do to demonstrate any of these expectations. 

 

Digital Badges and Portfolios

Digital badges are emerging as an exciting tool to assess student proficiency and integrate student interests with attainment of standards. Digital badges help increase student engagement, record achievements and measure students’ skills and readiness. But how does a school community come to agreement about what it means to earn each badge, and how do badges connect to school and state requirements?

A digital badge is a credential that students earn credit toward graduation requirements through their accomplishments. Most of us are familiar with badges in the context of scouting, and that’s a useful basis of comparison, because those badge represents proficiency in a specific skill, not just time spent learning.

In the context of schools, digital badges allow students to show their progress and for schools to implement competency-based teaching and learning. Digital badges can represent work completed within or outside traditional classes–for example, a student can earn a digital badge that demonstrates her mastery of biology standards through a science investigation completed in an afterschool community service experience. The same goes for music, dance, video production, or many other achievements that might easily count for academic credit. Well-defined digital badges allow students to measure their accomplishments via standards, and the flexibility that this provides can make those standards matter much more.

The key to successful digital badge implementation is agreement among school staff members about the specific requirements of a digital badge, and that badges need to be approved by a teacher as acknowledgement that they demonstrate learning aligned with academic goals. The upside of digital badges is that they are very flexible, but definitions need to be clearly understood by students and teachers. In addition to deepening personalized learning for students, digital badges fit elegantly into Richer Picture and other existing digital portfolio systems.